Sections

Program Requirements & Courses

All MA in Global Sustainability students must complete all core requirements (18 credits), at least one concentration (6 credits), and two courses from the electives (6 credits).
View the faculty brochure here I View the student handbook here.
View 2014 Summer Schedule here.


Required Core Courses (18 Credit Hours)

IDS 6233 -  Concepts and Principles of Sustainability (3)
IDS 6235 - Economics and Finance for Sustainability (3)
IDS 6234 - Systems Thinking: The Key to Sustainability (3)
IDS 6238 - Communicating the Value of Sustainability (3)
IDS 6946 - Global Sustainability Internship (6)

Required Internship will be completed in the last semester of the Program, normally 4-6 weeks or as advised.

Concentration Courses (6 Credit Hours)

Water:

PHC 6934 -  Public Health Topics in Global Sustainability (3)
IDS 6938 -  Sustainable Water Resource Management (3)

Entrepreneurship:

ENT 6116 - Business Plan Development (3)
ENT 6186 - Strategic Market Assessment for New Technologies (3)

Sustainable Tourism:

IDS 6236 - Sustainable Tourism Development: Principles & Practices (3)
IDS 6237 - Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Management for Coastal & Marine Habitat Protection (3)

Sustainable Energy:

IDS6240 - Renewable Transportation Fuels (3)
IDS6241 - Renewable Power Portfolio (3)

General Electives for All Concentrations*

6 credits
Students select two courses from the following list.

ANG 6436 - Issues in Heritage Tourism
ANG 6469 - Foundations of Medical Anthropology
ARC 5931 - Special Topics in Architecture: Landscape & Ecology as Urbanism
ARC 5931 - Sustainable Neighborhood Development
CGN 6933 - Green Engineering for Sustainability
CGN 6933 - Green Infrastructure for Sustainable Communities
CGN 6933 - Sustainable Development Engineering
CGN 6933 - Sustainable Transportation
CWR 6305 - Urban Hydrology
CWR 6820 - Coastal Waves & Structures
ECH 5785 - Sustaining the Earth: An Engineering Approach
EEL 6935 - Sustainable Energy
EIN 6935 - Lean Six Sigma
ENT 6016 - New Venture Formation
ENT 6415 - Venture Capital and Private Equity in Entrepreneurship
ENT 6606 - Product Development
ENT 6947 - Advanced Topics in Entrepreneurship
ENV 4417 - Water Quality and Treatment
ENV 6667 - Environmental Biotechnology
EVR 6216 - Advances in Water Quality Policy and Management
EVR 6320 - Environmental Management
EVR 6937 - Seminar Environmental Policy: Environmental Policy & the Built Environment
EVR 6937 - Seminar Environmental Policy: Planning, Policy and Politics
EVR 6937 - Seminar Environmental Policy: Sustainability and Development
GEB 6457 - Ethics, Law and Sustainable Business Practices
GMS 6095 - Principles of Intellectual Property
IDS 6938 - Special Topics/Seminars in Global Sustainability
MAN 6746 - Designing Sustainable Enterprise
MAN 6930 - Global Entrepreneurship
MAR 6936 - Sustainable Marketing
PAD 6335 - Urban Growth Management
PHI 6605 - Environmental Ethics
TTE 6270 - Intelligent Transportation Systems
URP 6930 - Disaster Resilient Community
URP 6930 - Environmental & Planning Issues in Coastal Communities

Dual Degree Program

Master of Arts (M.A.) in Global Sustainability
Master of Science (M.S.) Entrepreneurship in Applied Technologies

PROGRAM INFORMATION
The Dual Degree Program in Global Sustainability and Entrepreneurship combines two existing programs, which allows students to attain two Master’s degrees simultaneously rather than in a sequential effort. The time commitment will be about three years with a total of 51 credit hours. The combination of a Master’s in Global Sustainability with a Master’s in Entrepreneurship provides students with a comprehensive understanding of concepts, tools and skills of sustainability, and the ability to apply these areas in a problem solving context.  Students shall have the opportunity to focus on the areas of green technology and development, transport, energy and sustainable enterprise.

DEGREE PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS

A total of 51 credits are required for graduation with a Dual Master’s in Global Sustainability and Entrepreneurship. Beyond the dual crediting of 9 credit hours, all graduation requirements of the individual programs apply.

Common Courses (9 credits may be counted toward both the GS and EAT degrees)
ENT 6016 - New Venture Formation (3) 
ENT 6116 - Business Plan Development (3)
GMS 6095 - Principles of Intellectual Property (3)
ENT 6186 - Strategic Market Assessment for New Technologies (3)
ENT 6947 - Advanced Topics in Entrepreneurship (3)
ENT 6606 - Product Development (3)
ENT 6415 - Venture Capital and Private Equity in Entrepreneurship (3)

All Dual Master’s in Global Sustainability and Entrepreneurship students must complete a 6 credit hour internship.

All Dual Master’s in Global Sustainability and Entrepreneurship students must complete:

ENT 6016 - New Venture Formation (3)
ENT 6186 - Strategic Market Assessment for New Technologies (3)
ENT 6947 - Advanced Topics in Entrepreneurship (3)

For current M.S. Entrepreneurship in Applied Technologies students interested in pursuing this dual degree, please fill out and submit the application for dual degree.
http://www.grad.usf.edu/inc/linked-files/dualma.pdf

Course Descriptions

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Master of Arts in Global Sustainability - Core Courses

IDS 6233 Concepts and Principles of Sustainability
This course discusses basic concepts and principles of sustainable development. It discusses systems thinking and different sustainability perspectives such as local/global and historical/future. Best practices will be analyzed through case studies.

IDS 6235 Economics and Finance for Sustainability
The course provides sustainability practitioners an overview of how economics and finance enhance sustainability. The emphasis is on environmental economics and innovative finance; students learn how scarce natural resources can be optimally allocated.

IDS 6234 Systems Thinking: The Key to Sustainability
The course develops the critical system thinking skills to solve sustainability challenges. It covers quantitative system analysis techniques including environmental impact assessment, life-cycle assessment, cost-benefit analysis and decision analysis

IDS 6238 Communicating the Value of Sustainability
Provides 1) an understanding of the challenges of communicating about sustainability; 2) a theoretical framework for analyzing these challenges; and 3) practice at applying that knowledge to their writing.

IDS 6946 Global Sustainability Internship
This domestic or international internship is a capstone course in the Patel College of Global Sustainability MA program.  It is based on an interdisciplinary field study, designed to provide a student with an opportunity to develop a comprehensive in-depth study on sustainability with respect to a specific field. It will also allow students to build strong interactions with external stakeholders who influence practice and policy. During this internship, students will apply acquired theoretical skills to investigate real-world problems and develop innovative solutions in sustainability.

 

Master of Arts in Global Sustainability - Water Concentration

PHC 6934 - Public Health Topics in Global Sustainability 
The course will address the global health problems from the perspective of a sustainable environment and system. We live on a planet that provides an intricate ecosystem which is the source of life-sustaining services like: water, air, energy, land, and biodiversity. Students will learn how this ecosystem is materialized in goods like drinking water, food, housing, transportation, sanitation which are key elements for the maintenance of our health. Health is a key element towards our common goal of keeping a sustainable planet. As mentioned by former Director-General of the WHO, Brundtland, “We cannot achieve the goals of sustainable development in the face of widespread ill health, particularly among poor people. Improving healthy life is not only a desirable outcome of sustainable development; it is also a powerful and undervalued means of achieving it. Poor people who are sick cannot earn and cannot learn.”

IDS 6938 - Sustainable Water Resource Management: Doing More with Less
This course provides an overview of the challenges and strategies for sustainable water resource management for coordinated planning, development and management of water resources. It will discuss technical, legal and institutional frameworks.

Master of Arts in Global Sustainability - Sustainable Energy Concentration

IDS 6XXX - Renewable Transportation Fuels
This course aims at providing future energy practitioners with an in-depth understanding of the technology and business aspects of renewable transportation fuels, which are intended to power passenger vehicles, commercial fleets, ships, and aviation, as the economy shifts towards a greener and more sustainable basis. The course analyzes production technologies, market opportunities and challenges, economics and finance, infrastructure compatibility, and sustainability and environmental aspects of renewable transportation fuels with an emphasis on advanced fuels from biomass and algae.

IDS 6XXX - Renewable Power Portfolio
This course provides future energy practitioners with a solid understanding of the leading and evolving technologies and the business aspects of renewable power generation, storage, and use at a time when wind, solar, biomass, and other forms of renewable energy are becoming increasingly important as peak and baseload sources of electricity in the United States and worldwide.  The course analyzes the market status and growth potential of the portfolio of renewable power sources, production technologies, economics, project financing, infrastructure development, smart grid opportunities, and the sustainability, regulatory, and environmental aspects of renewable power.

Master of Arts in Global Sustainability - Entrepreneurship Concentration

ENT 6116 - Business Plan Development
The first part of the course focuses on developing the effective written and oral communication skills students will need in preparing and presenting their business plans to investors.  The second part of the course is focused on how to develop an effective business plan.  Student teams will develop a business plan for either an opportunity developed by students or one by an entrepreneur in the local
community.  Business plans developed by student teams will be presented before a panel of local entrepreneurs for evaluation and critique in a business plan competition format.

ENT 6186 - Strategic Market Assessment for New Technologies
This course focuses on development of techniques for assessing technology merit of new innovations (including development of an appreciation and understanding of intellectual property) and development of strategic frameworks to commercialize new products.  It uses classroom discussions, field projects, and technology assessment tools to evaluate investigators’ intellectual property portfolios of client entrepreneurs and technology organizations to help create high value licensing opportunities and new venture creations.

Master of Arts in Global Sustainability - Sustainable Tourism Concentration

IDS 6236 - Sustainable Tourism Development: Principles & Practices
This course focuses on environmentally and socially responsible tourism strategies and innovations, including initiatives such as the Global Sustainable Tourism Council. It examines how destinations have improved competitiveness by creating environmentally and socially friendly tourism products and services. The course emphasizes establishing policies and management plans to identify and reduce the environmental impact created by tourism facilities and services, and looks at how to create environmental management systems (EMS) with broad public/private support.

IDS 6237 - Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Management for Coastal & Marine Habitat Protection
This course focuses the ecotourism and sustainable tourism management for coastal habitat and marine protection.  The course includes strategies and innovations, including best practices developed in the global “Blue Criteria” and the Sustainable Travel “Shore Excursion” criteria.  It examines the major threats of coastal habitat and marine environments, such as ocean acidification, climate change, overfishing, and pollution.  The course emphasizes establishing policies and management plans to identify and reduce the environmental impact created by tourism facilities and services, examines twelve cost effective strategies for coastal and marine habitat protection and provides an introduction to culture based leadership development for change.

Master of Arts in Global Sustainability - Electives

ANG 6436 - Issues in Heritage Tourism
The purpose of this course is to introduce students to the theoretical and practical issues in heritage tourism and the business of heritage resource management from an anthropological perspective.

ANG 6469 - Foundations of Medical Anthropology
Current topical issues in Medical Anthropology.  Water is a topic of profound scholarly significance and an object of widespread public concern as it becomes a scarce resource. Water as a subject of analysis as it connects abstract notions (symbolism surrounding landscape) to concrete experiences of humans (uneven geographic development) across the globe.  Analysis of water flows, systems, and structures
can help us understand historical processes of manipulation of built environment, governmental structures and politics, health/medical concerns, and human and social relations.  To protect water as a scarce resource and provide for future populations, we need to understand the nexus of these histories, geographies, and cultures. This course will provide the tools by which to do that.

ARC 5931 - Special Topics in Architecture: Landscape & Ecology as Urbanism
This course will examine landscape and ecology as urbanism as a critical design practice and theory that has emerged within the past decade, which engages urbanism and the natural and ecological worlds in a symbiotic and interdependent relationship.  This model of applying science and ecological thinking to the design of the built urban environment is of particular importance with respect to contemporary challenges facing the urban designer, including issues of sustainability and remediation of the urban environment.

ARC 5931 - Sustainable Neighborhood Development
Urban designers, architects, landscape architects, planners, real estate developers, environmental engineers, public officials and community advocates are all involved the integrated decision-making processes often referred to as urban and community design, or more specifically that of city building. Increasingly they are being asked to create healthy, sustainable, adaptive and resilient urban neighborhoods. This course will focus on understanding and evaluating sustainable neighborhood development strategies, using multiple concepts, practices and approaches. In doing so, the course will utilize a number of criteria used at the national level to establish benchmarks and rating metrics for sustainable neighborhood design and development (including LEED for Neighborhood Development).  Students will assess and critique neighborhood development projects and design proposals that reflect a number of qualities related to sustainable urbanism in general or seek to promote specific aspects of sustainable and resilient communities. The scope of this course will include a survey of sustainable conditions related to the built urban landscape, within the broader context of the city as an integrated dynamic urban social-ecological system

CGN 6933 Green Engineering for Sustainability
This course will provide a foundation for green engineering design. Concerns regarding population growth, global warming, resource scarcity, globalization, and environmental degradation have led to an increasing awareness that current engineering design and policy strategies can be engaged more effectively to advance the goal of sustainability. Approaching sustainability from a design perspective requires the need for a fundamental conceptual shift from the current paradigms of product toward a more sustainable system based on efficient and effective use of benign materials and energy.

CGN 6933 Green Infrastructure for Sustainable Communities
The focus of the course will be on green infrastructure for urban settings, i.e., water, wastewater, transportation, roads, bridges, buildings, energy, wastes, housing, etc. Of particular emphasis will be the complex interdependencies of infrastructures in an urban/regional setting. Green building and green construction will be a part of the class. We will address the various USGBC LEED programs, from buildings to communities.  The course aims to bring together engineers, architects, planners, business managers, natural and social scientists, health professionals, etc in the same class and form multidisciplinary project teams to plan a green building.

CGN 6933 Sustainable Development Engineering
Study of applying appropriate and sustainable engineering solutions and technology to control environmental pollutants found in a developing world setting and smaller communities in North America. Concepts of sustainable development are covered. Topics are drawn from several areas of engineering, including water supply, water treatment, water storage, wastewater treatment, materials, solid waste management, construction, and watersheds.

CGN 6933 Sustainable Transportation
This course will provide an overview of sustainability principles and definitions, sustainability in transportation, major sustainability issues in transportation such as environmental/ecological impacts, social issues, economic/fiscal issues, public health, energy dependence, congestion, safety, and infrastructure deterioration, operationalization of sustainability principles into practice, pathways toward sustainability, including planning, policy, and technology, role/use of analytical modeling and planning tools in understanding and evaluation of sustainability.

CWR 6305 Urban Hydrology
A study of the quantity and quality problems and solution techniques associated with urban runoff.

CWR 6820 - Coastal Waves & Structures
Fundamentals of wave motion and the mutual interaction of waves and structures. A design project is included.

ECH 5785 Sustaining the Earth: An Engineering Approach
This course will introduce an approach of global perspective on ecological principles revealing how all the world’s life is connected and sustained within the biosphere and how engineering provides the tools to design solutions engaging materials science & environmental ethics.

EEL 6935 Sustainable Energy
This course aims to introduce students to concepts of sustainable energy production. Solar, wind, hydroelectricity, hydrogen, biomass and geothermal energy production methods as well as main storage technologies will be discussed. These major production methods will be quantitatively compared throughout the course with the main energy consumption pathways of human societies in different parts of the globe. Energy consumption of transportation, heating/cooling, food production and manufacturing of goods will be discussed. Energy savings potentials of the various consumption pathways will also be examined. After successful participation in this course students will be able to assess technological aspects of public energy policy, as well as have the foundation for advanced study of sustainable energy topics.

EIN 6935 - Lean Six Sigma
Lean topics address concepts of elimination of waste and reduction of cycle time in organizational processes. Six Sigma principles consist of problem-solving techniques, data collection and statistical analysis, reduction of process variation, process capability, and cost analysis.

ENT 6016 - New Venture Formation
An overview of the new venture creation process, this course is intended to provide new students with a basic understanding of the entrepreneurial process of Venture Creation and Innovation.  Lectures and selected case studies are combined with experienced guest speakers to give students a rich understanding of the challenges facing entrepreneurs.

ENT 6415 Venture Capital and Private Equity in Entrepreneurship
The course focuses on critical skills necessary to develop appropriate financing strategies for new venture creation and growth.  Students will use case studies and team projects in course studies.  Three primary topics are covered: first, an overview of the entrepreneurial finance process and involved players; second, performing business valuations; and third, securities law with emphasis on developing term sheets and private placement memorandums.  Student teams will complete a valuation and mock securities offering for an existing small to mid-size business.  Financial valuations and terms sheets developed by student teams will be presented to a panel of venture capital professionals for evaluation and critique.

ENT 6606 Product Development
This course focuses on new product development process from invention to commercialization of technology products.  Topics include intellectual property, product design, manufacturing process patent process, licensing, market assessment, and commercialization.  Students will use case studies and team projects in the course of study.

ENT 6947 - Advanced Topics in Entrepreneurship
The Advanced Topics course is intended to provide students the opportunity to apply acquired knowledge into practice.  This is achieved either through an individual, faculty directed project or through a field study/internship.  Students elect either option depending on their individual needs and goals.  Individual projects typically involve developing a business plan for a business the student intends to launch.  Internships involve working directly with senior business leaders in an entrepreneurial environment.  Students will be expected to participate in open classroom discussion of their on-going experiences during their projects/internships, with a presentation of their project before peers and faculty.  (A limited number of fellowships may also be applied)

ENV 4417 Water Quality and Treatment
ENV4417 provides students with experience in conducting engineering calculations to evaluate water quality and to design water and wastewater treatment facilities.  Topics include water quality, principles of physical, chemical, and biological treatment systems, design calculations, and interpretation of regulatory constraints.  Students learn to evaluate performance and reliability of treatment units used in the production of drinking water and treatment of wastewater.  Constraints associated with municipal, private, and point-of-use treatment systems are evaluated. 

ENV 6667 Environmental Biotechnology
Environmental Biotechnology is an important tool in providing sustainable water resources and protecting the health of humans and ecosystems.  The focus of the class will be on both principles and applications of environmental biotechnology pertaining primarily to biological wastewater treatment.  It is anticipated that topics of bioremediation will also be covered to some extent.  Under principles, we will review the basics of microbiology and cover topics such as electron and oxygen equivalents, stoichiometry, energetics and kinetics of microbial growth, substrate degradation kinetics, suspended- and attached-growth systems, bioreactor concepts for completely-mixed and plug flow systems.  Under applications, we will cover treatment processes relevant to environmental engineering, such as lagoons and ponds, activated sludge, biological nutrient removal, membrane bioreactors, trickling filters and rotating biological contactors, fluidized bed reactors, and anaerobic digestion.  This class will be most useful to engineers and scientists interested and responsible for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment, as well as the biological treatment of industrial and hazardous wastes.

EVR 6216 - Advances in Water Quality Policy and Management
Conceptual structure and practical implementation of U.S. watershed-based water quality regulations and policies. Practical application of scientific information and quantitative methods in management/policy decisions for water quality protection.

EVR 6320 - Environmental Management
This course introduces the students to environmental management from technical and non-technical perspectives. The major topics covered will be water and air quality, environmental sustainability, collaboration and building consensus.

EVR 6936 - Seminar in Environmental Science: Advances in Water Resources
Water resources policies are viewed from theoretical and practical perspectives focusing on management strategies in different physical and human environments.

EVR 6937 - Seminar Environmental Policy: Env Policy & the Built Environment
Critical assessment of environmental policy and regulatory formulation, implementation, evaluation, and revision in the context of scientific, technological, institutional, political, social and economic factors; case studies of major U.S. policies.

EVR 6937 - Seminar Environmental Policy: Planning, Policy and Politics
Critical assessment of environmental policy and regulatory formulation, implementation, evaluation, and revision in the context of scientific, technological, institutional, political, social and economic factors; case studies of major U.S. policies.

EVR 6937 Seminar Environmental Policy: Sustainability and Development
The course will take a holistic approach to exploring the concepts of sustainability and development. We will critically evaluate sustainability initiatives and challenges; and the role of economic, political and cultural systems in development, environmental and social change and the notion of development as progress.’ The seminar will, largely be an article-based course where each student will have the opportunity to focus on an issue or topic related to their research interests in the context of sustainability and development. Students may explore criteria associated with AGENDA 21 including but not limited to strategies for sustainable development; cooperation and alliances for a sustainable future; education, culture and sustainable development; business, corporate social responsibility and green technology; environmental management and sustainability; global, national and local governance and institutions for sustainability.

GEB 6457 - Ethics, Law and Sustainable Business Practices
This course examines major and emerging issues pertaining to business sustainability. Sustainability for business requires a strategic focus on the triple bottom line via an assessment of environmental, social, and economic factors. The course surveys key regulations and trends and reviews models for creating socially and environmentally responsible organizations.  The study of sustainability is a study of society’s mechanisms for long term planning particularly regarding the use and protection of scarce resources. The goal is to develop an appreciation for the fundamental role environmental considerations must play in the decision-making processes.

GEB 6930 - Special Topics in Management and Sustainability
This course examines major and emerging issues pertaining to business sustainability. Sustainability for business requires a strategic focus on the triple bottom line via an assessment of environmental, social, and economic factors. The course surveys key regulations and trends and reviews models for creating socially and environmentally responsible organizations.  The study of sustainability is a study of society’s mechanisms for long term planning particularly regarding the use and protection of scarce resources. The goal is to develop an appreciation for the fundamental role environmental considerations must play in the decision-making processes.

GMS 6095 - Principles of Intellectual Property
This course focuses on the various approaches to protection of intellectual property rights including domestic and international patent filings, copyrights, trademarks and trade secrets.  The course examines the relevance of intellectual property protection to the development of a global strategy for business growth

IDS 6938 - Special Topics/Seminars in Global Sustainability
Special topics related to sustainability.

MAN 6746 Designing Sustainable Enterprise
This is an advanced course designed to provide an analytical framework for thinking about new developments in organizing for a sustainable world. It will familiarize participants with several key themes and concepts that are relevant to transforming organizations from traditional production systems to systems that can contribute significantly to building more sustainable economies, societies and natural environments.

MAN 6930 - Global Entrepreneurship
Entrepreneurship is constantly changing on a global scale with entrepreneurship experiencing radical changes in technology, communications, capital markets and geopolitical frameworks. Today’s globally-focused startups are building successful ventures to compete around the globe. In this class students will gain an understating and appreciation for the challenges of conducting business outside the United States gaining knowledge in investor strategies, global supply chains, addressing international customers, and managing employees located around the globe. The challenges these entrepreneurs face, particularly in emerging markets, are some of the most complex and sophisticated for their
businesses and the governments under which they operate.

MAR 6936 Sustainable Marketing
A course designed to help the student understand the challenges and opportunities with respect to marketing an organization that strives to be sustainable.

PAD 6335 Urban Growth Management
This course provides an overview of growth management principles and practices in the United States. The course will focus on specific tools and approaches, including smart growth, urban growth boundaries, adequate public facilities, land preservation, urban design, and transit-oriented development. The course will include a comparative of state growth management frameworks, examining the land use and comprehensive planning policies of states including Oregon, New Jersey, and Maryland. The key concepts and evolution of Florida’s growth management approach will be examined in detail, including concurrency, developments of regional impact, sector planning, and Rural Land Stewardship Areas.

PAD 6336 Community Development Programs and Strategies
Discusses community development principles and practices in historical and contemporary perspectives, federal, state and local initiatives, physical, social, and economic approaches to community development.

PHI 6605 Environmental Ethics
The first part is a review of ethical theories and biospherical trends, for the sake of acquiring normative and ecological literacy.  The second part is a survey of the conceptual and policy literature on sustainability.  Part three is about normative universals: human rights, nonhuman rights, and interspecies conflict resolution.  The final part is about deep ecology, the land ethic, and environmental feminism.

TTE 6270 Intelligent Transportation
ITS architecture design and evaluation, simulation and modeling, advanced traffics management systems, traveler information systems, vehicle control systems, commercial vehicle operations, public transportation systems, and telecommunications.

URP 6930 Disaster Resilient Community
Study of the factors that promote effective disaster preparedness and mitigation, with a focus on involvement of community stakeholders. Students will participate in a “service learning” project with the Hillsborough County Hazards Mitigation office.

URP 6930 Environmental & Planning Issues in Coastal Communities
Consideration of the planning and environmental policy concerns that affect the resiliency of coastal communities. Explores the roles of both urban and environmental planners in shaping policies and management decisions for cities located in the unique coastal zone environment, within Federal, state, and local regulatory contexts. Topics include urban planning within the framework of climate change impacts, especially sea level rise; the evaluation of natural and man-made infrastructure solutions; and cutting edge planning tools for protecting and developing coastal communities, such as ecosystem based management, integrated coastal management, and strategic environmental assessment.